For calculating the tractive force along an upgrade of an asphalt road, the most probable value of the co-efficient of traction resistance `mu` is assumed
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If V is speed of a moving vehicle, r is radius of the curve, g is the acceleration due to gravity, W is the width of the carriageway, the super elevation is
If E is the modulus of elasticity of the concrete in kg/cm^{2}, d is the slab thickness in cm, is the Poisson's ratio for the concrete, k is the sub-grade modulus kg/cm^{3}, the radius r of relative stiffness in cm,
The standard equation of a cubic parabolic transition curve provided on roads, is
The safe stopping sight distance D, may be computed from the equation